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During the Great Recession, like any other economic downturns, as unemployment rises, aggregate income declines causing a major decline in tax collections. On the other hand, with the rise in unemployment, spending on safety net programs rise. So, there are not too many good options available to resort the health of the national economy. It will be very difficult to defend cuts in the federal government programs and especially the programs geared to sustain the minimum of the standard of living for the recent “poor.” So, government needs to increase its borrowing. Deficit spending refers to government spending exceeding what it brings in federal income and corporate taxes during a certain period. Deficit spending hence increases government debt. Most economists accept that deficit spending is desirable and necessary as part of countercyclical fiscal policy. In such a case, government increases its borrowing and hence its deficit to compensate for the shortfall in aggregate demand. This is derived from Keynesian economics, and has been the mainstream economics view. Following John Maynard Keynes, many economists recommend deficit spending to moderate or end a recession, especially a severe one. When the economy has high unemployment, an increase in government purchases creates a market for business output, creating income and encouraging increases in consumer spending, which creates further increases in the demand for business output. (This is the multiplier effect). This raises the real gross domestic product (GDP) and the level of employment and lowers the unemployment rate. Government borrowing under such circumstances increases the demand for borrowing and thus pushes interest rates up. Rising interest rates can “crowd out” (discourage) fixed private investment spending, canceling out some of the demand stimulus arising from the deficit. Write an essay analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of deficit spending and the effects of federal government borrowing on the economy i.e., the “crowding out” effect.

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